TYPE II ENDOLEAK
The endoleak cavity acts as an “arteriovenous malformation nidus” thrombosing the nidus is the key for a successful embolization.
(Baum RA, Endovascular Today, 2003)
The nidus theory has been investigated: this study involved 29pts to compare outcomes of type II endoleak embolization involving: endoleak nidus only – vs – nidus and branch vessels.
Embolization of nidus and branch vessels is not superior to embolization of only the nidus in terms of occlusion of type II endoleak and change in sac size despite requiring longer procedure time and resulting in greater patient radiation exposure.
(Hyeon Yu. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2017 Feb;28(2):176-184)
In terms of embolization routes, we have:
- Transarterial (leading to the nidus site);
- Direct puncture (translumbar or transabdominal):
- Transcaval (which we have never used).
In terms of embolizing materials, we consider: